Research Paper – PC Lunwen http://pclunwen.com/ Wed, 28 Sep 2022 09:56:52 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://pclunwen.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/favicon.png Research Paper – PC Lunwen http://pclunwen.com/ 32 32 Study reports effects of COVID-19 on colon https://pclunwen.com/study-reports-effects-of-covid-19-on-colon/ Wed, 28 Sep 2022 08:13:50 +0000 https://pclunwen.com/study-reports-effects-of-covid-19-on-colon/ The multiple extrapulmonary manifestations of systemic COVID-19 disease are largely caused by widespread tissue expression of major SARS-CoV-2 entry factors and patient-specific features of COVID-19 pathobiology, which establish critical guidance for basic and translational research. Although SARS-CoV-2 infections primarily attack the lungs, in many cases they can also damage other organs, such as the colon: […]]]>

The multiple extrapulmonary manifestations of systemic COVID-19 disease are largely caused by widespread tissue expression of major SARS-CoV-2 entry factors and patient-specific features of COVID-19 pathobiology, which establish critical guidance for basic and translational research. Although SARS-CoV-2 infections primarily attack the lungs, in many cases they can also damage other organs, such as the colon: approximately 60% of patients experience impacts to the digestive tract.

MedUni Vienna scientists have identified the discrepancies between the manifestations of Covid-19 in the colon and the lungs at the molecular level. This study forms the basis for the identification of new biomarkers and the development of new treatment strategies.

Scientists have studied the singularities and commonalities of Covid-19’s impact on the lungs and other organs. They used analyzes of complex datasets to recognize several molecular mechanisms in pulmonary and gastrointestinal manifestations. While SARS-CoV-2 infections of the lungs elicit traditional immune system reactions, they also spontaneously trigger liver and lipid metabolism responses in the gastrointestinal tract.

The unique structure of the virus is what causes SARS-CoV-2 infections to frequently manifest in additional organs besides the lungs, including the skin, kidneys, stomach, and heart. Up to 60% of patients with Covid-19 develop gastrointestinal problems, which may indicate more severe disease progression or a worse outcome. The results of this investigation will advance our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the organ- and tissue-specific responses induced by SARS-CoV-2.

Diana Mechtcheriakova, Head of Molecular Systems Biology and Pathophysiology Research Group at MedUni Vienna, said: “Our findings may advance the identification of novel biomarkers and treatment strategies for Covid-19, taking into account specific responses in manifestations outside of the lung.”

Journal reference:

  1. Anastasia Meshcheryakova, Philip Zimmermann, Martina Salzmann, Peter Pietschmann, Diana Meshcheriakova. Singularity and commonalities in response to SARS-CoV-2 in lung and colon cell models. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2022; 23(18):10451 DOI:10.3390/ijms231810451
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Cleveland Rocks – Free Washington Beacon https://pclunwen.com/cleveland-rocks-free-washington-beacon/ Sun, 25 Sep 2022 09:03:01 +0000 https://pclunwen.com/cleveland-rocks-free-washington-beacon/ Policy REVIEW: “A Man of Iron: The Turbulent Life and Improbable Presidency of Grover Cleveland” by Troy Senik A statue of Grover Cleveland / Wikimedia Commons Tevi Troy • September 25, 2022 4:59 am Only 14 men have served two full terms as President of the United States. Of these 14, Grover Cleveland is perhaps […]]]>

REVIEW: “A Man of Iron: The Turbulent Life and Improbable Presidency of Grover Cleveland” by Troy Senik

A statue of Grover Cleveland / Wikimedia Commons

Tevi Troy • September 25, 2022 4:59 am

Only 14 men have served two full terms as President of the United States. Of these 14, Grover Cleveland is perhaps the least well known. Which is strange. Our two-term CEOs include some of the most famous presidents: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, Franklin Roosevelt and Ronald Reagan. But all are quite familiar to the general educated reader. Grover Cleveland, on the other hand, belongs to the category of the most forgotten presidents of late 19th century facial hair.

Cleveland is so unknown that it doesn’t have a monument or even a statue in Washington. He deserves an (so far) intact claim to fame: unlike other members of the two-term club, his service has not been consecutive. Cleveland left his first term after a narrow loss to Benjamin Harrison. He then turned around and defeated Harrison in the next election. He returned to the White House, making him one of only three presidents, along with Jackson and Roosevelt, to win the popular vote at least three times. Leaving the White House for the first time, Frances, Cleveland’s wife, said, “We’re not coming back for four years from today.”

Troy Senik’s new biography on Cleveland, A Iron Man, shows that Cleveland is not appreciated. Senik, a former White House speechwriter and conservative thinker, admired Cleveland from an early age, visiting the president’s birthplace when he was 16. Senik has good reason to admire Cleveland, as the book shows. Cleveland had a fascinating history. Born into poverty, he enjoyed one of the most meteoric rises to the presidency, going from mayor of Buffalo to governor of New York to president in a matter of years. Perhaps Theodore Roosevelt, also of New York, is the only president to match Cleveland’s rapid rise. Cleveland also had a sex scandal, fathering a child out of wedlock, but still managed to get elected. And he had a medical scandal, sneaking into the White House to have secret surgery on a cancerous tumor in his mouth. The surgery took place on a boat and the president managed to keep it a secret until years after his death.

Cleveland also dealt with a fascinating set of issues, though issues including tariffs, military pensions and free money may lack resonance today. He was a firm believer in the Constitution and strove to ensure that his actions remained within the bounds of that document. When Congress passed disaster relief for drought-stricken farmers, it vetoed because such action was not constitutionally mandated. He was a workaholic who took work seriously. And he contrasts sharply not only with our current president, who found a way to get the executive to cancel student loans. Unfortunately, Cleveland’s self-discipline and adherence to principles are markedly different from those of most of his successors.

In his most compelling chapter, Senik questions why Cleveland is so little remembered today. One reason is this lack of resonance with the key issues of its time, which makes it difficult to place Cleveland in the context of current political debates. Cleveland also gave boring speeches, some taken from the encyclopedia, in a high-pitched nasal voice. He could also have run for a third term, which would have made us know him better, but chose not to. Later, his long-survived wife Frances – Cleveland died in 1908 – refused to vote for Franklin Roosevelt’s third term in 1940, citing Cleveland’s example to his children: “Your father never approved of a third mandate.” However, when FDR ran again in 1944, she told her children it was fine to support him, saying, “Your father never said anything about a fourth term.” Cleveland also presided over a painful economic depression, which often damages the reputation of the presidents who preside over them.

But the main problem Cleveland faces in its quest for historic recognition is that he was a limited-government conservative who opposed government economic interventions, making him a Democrat from a mold that disappeared with the advent of progressive Woodrow Wilson. Cleveland, as Senik shows, actually recognized Wilson’s potential when Wilson was at Princeton, but then parted ways with him as his presidency moved in a decidedly un-Clevelandian direction.

In this, Cleveland has become an uncomfortable ancestor for today’s Democrats in its loyalty to constitutional limits and its belief in small government. Republicans are unlikely to celebrate a Democrat, it’s unlikely that all Democrats will celebrate that type of Democrat, leaving Cleveland largely out in the cold. Either way, Americans of all stripes should celebrate this patriotic and dedicated public servant who ably led our nation through both difficult and exciting times.

A Man of Iron: The Turbulent Life and Unlikely Presidency of Grover Cleveland
by Troy Senik
Threshold editions, 384 pages, $32.99

Tevi Troy is a senior fellow at the Bipartisan Policy Center and a former White House senior aide. His latest book is Fight House: White House rivalries from Truman to Trump.

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Epic launches program to ‘unify’ clinical research with care delivery https://pclunwen.com/epic-launches-program-to-unify-clinical-research-with-care-delivery/ Thu, 22 Sep 2022 13:26:00 +0000 https://pclunwen.com/epic-launches-program-to-unify-clinical-research-with-care-delivery/ At launch, Epic said it plans to unite each of the stakeholders through the use of a single system, the Life Sciences program. According to the company, providers around the world use Epic to conduct more than 100,000 active research studies, involving approximately 4.7 million patients. With the Life Sciences program, Epic will focus on […]]]>

At launch, Epic said it plans to unite each of the stakeholders through the use of a single system, the Life Sciences program. According to the company, providers around the world use Epic to conduct more than 100,000 active research studies, involving approximately 4.7 million patients.

With the Life Sciences program, Epic will focus on matching providers with clinical trials tailored to the makeup of their patient populations, which the company says will be available at launch. Beyond that, Alan Hutchison, vice president, population, health and payer strategy at Epic, told Outsourcing-Pharma that the company’s R&D team is currently working on the next pieces of the roadmap. of the Life Sciences program.

The release says Epic has four other goals beyond clinical trial matching: making clinical trials accessible, increasing clinical trial efficiency, supporting clinicians with point-of-care information, and providing research. specially designed for suppliers to assess whether a test is correct. for them.

The overall goal, according to Hutchison, is to create, “A unified infrastructure that connects all aspects of healthcare, including providers, patients, payers, specialty diagnostic labs, life science companies, and more, can support higher quality care, a more consistent healthcare experience and faster medical innovation.”

Epic said the Life Sciences program would expand access to clinical trials, including to underrepresented communities, which is a major talking point in the industry. Hutchison clarified that improving access can be viewed as a two-step process, in terms of study sites and individual patients.

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Tuck School of Business | Postdoctoral researchers https://pclunwen.com/tuck-school-of-business-postdoctoral-researchers/ Tue, 20 Sep 2022 03:36:05 +0000 https://pclunwen.com/tuck-school-of-business-postdoctoral-researchers/ Karen Knowlton Fellow of Dean Guarini E-mail: karren.k.knowlton@tuck.dartmouth.eduCall: 603-646-8825Personal website: karrenknowlton.comDownload Resume Karren Knowlton’s research focuses on catalysts for change in the workplace. She primarily focuses on the topics of diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI), including what motivates members of marginalized groups to become pioneers in the workplace, how members of the majority group can […]]]>

Karen Knowlton

Fellow of Dean Guarini

E-mail: karren.k.knowlton@tuck.dartmouth.edu
Call: 603-646-8825
Personal website: karrenknowlton.com
Download Resume

Karren Knowlton’s research focuses on catalysts for change in the workplace. She primarily focuses on the topics of diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI), including what motivates members of marginalized groups to become pioneers in the workplace, how members of the majority group can become effective allies and how the connections and relationships that structure more autonomous work may differ. impact the identity, reputation and performance of people from marginalized groups. It also examines the micro foundations of organizational and institutional change. Knowlton’s research has won numerous grants and awards and has been published in leading management journals, including the Journal of the Academy of Management. She has taught management seminars at the Wharton School and was a Graduate Fellow for Teaching Excellence at the University of Pennsylvania Center for Teaching and Learning. Prior to her college career, she worked as a mechanical design engineer for Nike, Inc. Knowlton earned her doctorate in organizational behavior from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania, as well as an MBA and bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering from the Washington University in St. Louis.

jong-myeong-lim-headshot.jpg

Jong Myeong Lim

Visiting researcher

E-mail: jong.myeong.lim@tuck.dartmouth.edu
Call: 603-646-8825
Personal website: jonglim.com
Download Resume

Jong Myeong Lim is a postdoctoral researcher in the Operations and Management Science group at the Tuck School of Business in Dartmouth. His research lies at the intersection of health care operations management and health economics. Lim’s work focuses on incentivizing and improving the efficiency and quality of health care systems by addressing key operational challenges, including capacity management, incentive misalignment, and patient access. patients in care. He won first place in the MSOM Student Paper Competition 2021 and second place in the POMS College of Healthcare Operations Management Best Paper Competition 2022. Prior to his college career, Lim worked as a business analyst at Mount Sinai Health System in New York. He received his BA in Economics and MPA in Health Policy and Management from New York University, his Masters in Economics from the University of Texas at Austin, and his Ph.D. in Management Science and Applied Economics from The Wharton School. from the University of Pennsylvania.

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China’s cleantech decoupling carries far more risks than rewards, study finds https://pclunwen.com/chinas-cleantech-decoupling-carries-far-more-risks-than-rewards-study-finds/ Thu, 15 Sep 2022 20:08:12 +0000 https://pclunwen.com/chinas-cleantech-decoupling-carries-far-more-risks-than-rewards-study-finds/ The current U.S. trajectory to decouple from China on clean energy technologies may harm national and global efforts to mitigate climate change, finds a new study from the University of California, San Diego published in Science. The document contradicts common assumptions that working with China poses substantial national security and economic risks across the board. […]]]>

The current U.S. trajectory to decouple from China on clean energy technologies may harm national and global efforts to mitigate climate change, finds a new study from the University of California, San Diego published in Science.

The document contradicts common assumptions that working with China poses substantial national security and economic risks across the board. These risks have underpinned the policies of three US administrations and a majority of European governments, ranging from import tariffs to increased control of scientific collaboration. While some actions may be warranted, the study shows that for many technologies the cure is likely worse than the disease.

“The fight against climate change in the United States and especially in the developing world is highly dependent on the availability of affordable low-carbon technologies,” said study lead author Michael Davidson, assistant professor. at UC San Diego School of Global Policy and Strategy and UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering. “A major benefit of integration is to make these technologies more affordable, in addition to increased innovation. Therefore, when raising barriers to integration, we must be objective about specific policy goals and how which they could influence our ability to cope with the threat of climate change.”

Davidson and his co-authors embarked on the study to investigate claims by policymakers that collaborating with China on low-carbon technologies could threaten U.S. economic and national security interests. Using quantitative and qualitative data, the paper provides a breakdown of the risks of collaborating on the development of five key technologies that reduce CO2 emissions: wind, solar, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), batteries and “green” steel. “.

“Our results reveal that national security threats are mitigated across different low-carbon technologies,” Davidson said. “For example, open research and development on batteries was cited as a security issue because batteries can be used for military purposes, but it is not the same batteries that are needed to deal with climate change in very large scale.”

The paper outlines how solar PV panels and batteries pose higher risks of supply chain disruption due to the high concentration of manufacturing in China. To mitigate these risks, the study provides a new framework that calibrates responses to industry- and technology-specific circumstances. For example, as opposed to a binary choice between open and domestic supply chains, the study identifies a range of situations where diversification can achieve risk reduction policy goals.

Job creation has been used as a justification for reducing trade with China. For example, the Biden administration has decided to use the Defense Production Act to increase domestic solar manufacturing, which will “privately benefit the companies, localities, and workers hired to produce them,” the authors write. . They note that if it increases the cost of solar PV and slows deployment, the legislation could lead to limited job creation and increased emissions.

Building photovoltaic panels is usually the least labor intensive part of the whole business. There are usually many more people involved in the project development, installation, maintenance and operation of solar energy. These jobs are difficult to outsource; however, they are impacted when the VP cost increases.

To measure levels of economic and national security risk for a given technology, the paper assesses the current degree of reliance on China across the various technology components using industry and government data. As these risks are difficult to quantify, the study provides in-depth case examples combining quantitative and subjective assessments, which are used to assign a level of risk to each category, such as job losses, intellectual property violations , supply chain disruptions, critical infrastructure and the Suite.

“For most technologies, the ‘cure’ of decoupling is likely to be worse than the evil of ‘integration’,” write the authors. “There are huge benefits to having open supply chains and research environments and policies that seek to disrupt or decouple them must be based on a robust and objective assessment of the risks and benefits.”

The study, “China Decoupling Risks on Low-Carbon Technologies,” is co-authored by Valerie J. Karplus of Carnegie Mellon University, Joanna I. Lewis of Georgetown University, Jonas Nahm from Johns Hopkins University and Alex Wang from the University of California. , Los Angeles.

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WH demands immediate access to all US-funded research articles by 2025 https://pclunwen.com/wh-demands-immediate-access-to-all-us-funded-research-articles-by-2025/ Tue, 13 Sep 2022 20:47:36 +0000 https://pclunwen.com/wh-demands-immediate-access-to-all-us-funded-research-articles-by-2025/ On August 25, 2022, the Biden administration announced the implementation of a new policy that requires all US-funded research materials to be freely available to the public by 2025. Prior to this policy, the former President Obama signed into law “Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research” in 2013. The new policy […]]]>

On August 25, 2022, the Biden administration announced the implementation of a new policy that requires all US-funded research materials to be freely available to the public by 2025. Prior to this policy, the former President Obama signed into law “Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research” in 2013. The new policy aims to combat online paywalls and make all information discovered in a research study easily accessible to the audience.

The United States government has adopted many different policies over the past few decades regarding access to government-funded research projects. Since 2013, they have been trying to increase public access to these research projects.

Currently, most scientific papers supported by US funds have a one-year paywall in place that ensures that anyone trying to access the paper within the first year of publication will have to pay to access it. Databases such as JSTOR and EBSCO both enforce this paywall unless a university or organization purchases access to all materials, such as FSU.

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U of A and Auburn College of Nursing to Present Research on Breastfeeding and Animal-Assisted Therapy https://pclunwen.com/u-of-a-and-auburn-college-of-nursing-to-present-research-on-breastfeeding-and-animal-assisted-therapy/ Mon, 12 Sep 2022 05:17:25 +0000 https://pclunwen.com/u-of-a-and-auburn-college-of-nursing-to-present-research-on-breastfeeding-and-animal-assisted-therapy/ Photo submitted University of Alberta nursing students work in the Tiny Tusks space during a home football game. The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing at the U of A has partnered with Auburn University to present research on two distinct topics: the changing culture of breastfeeding and therapy assisted by the animal. […]]]>



Photo submitted

University of Alberta nursing students work in the Tiny Tusks space during a home football game.

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing at the U of A has partnered with Auburn University to present research on two distinct topics: the changing culture of breastfeeding and therapy assisted by the animal.

The event will take place from 5:30-6:30 p.m. on Thursday, September 15 in the Arkansas Union Ballroom. Allison Scott, associate professor in the U of A nursing program, and Ann Lambert, associate clinical professor in the Auburn nursing program, will talk about the relationship between health policy, breastfeeding culture, and the importance of collaborative research. U of A’s Tiny Tusks breastfeeding and infant support program is modeled after Auburn’s Tiger Babies initiative. Both programs provide clean, comfortable spaces at sporting events for caregivers to breastfeed, use a breast pump, or change a baby’s diaper. Nursing students and teaching staff spaces.

The U of A and Auburn nursing professors will also talk about CAREing Paws, an animal-assisted therapy program that is implemented on both campuses. U of A’s Michele Kilmer and Auburn’s Morgan Yordy will discuss their work to expand animal-assisted therapy programs beyond the traditional clinical setting. Two U of A therapy dogs in training – Gryffin and Bella – will be in attendance.

Academic research presentations will immediately follow the University of Alberta Nursing Career Fair. Recruiters from hospitals, social service agencies and other healthcare organizations will be available to discuss full-time, part-time or internship positions. Recruiters and hiring managers from over 25 organizations will be available.

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A global dataset of the microbial community in ticks from a metagenome study https://pclunwen.com/a-global-dataset-of-the-microbial-community-in-ticks-from-a-metagenome-study/ Sat, 10 Sep 2022 12:21:49 +0000 https://pclunwen.com/a-global-dataset-of-the-microbial-community-in-ticks-from-a-metagenome-study/ Data gathering The study was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement.20. To achieve a comprehensive review of the published literature on microbiome diversity by NGS in field-collected ticks, a literature search was conducted on Chinese and English databases using a set of terms and Boolean operators, […]]]>

Data gathering

The study was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement.20. To achieve a comprehensive review of the published literature on microbiome diversity by NGS in field-collected ticks, a literature search was conducted on Chinese and English databases using a set of terms and Boolean operators, primarily via PubMed, Web of Science (WOS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and WanFang databases until April 1, 2022, with no language or publication type restrictions. In the first step, general search terms were applied, including: “tick”, “Amblyomma”, “Archaeocroton”, “Bothriocroton”, “Dermacentor”, “Haemaphysalis”, “Hyalomme”, “Ixodes”, “Nosomma”, “Rhipicephalus”, “Rhipicenter”, “Robertsique”, “Anticola”, “Argas”, “carios”, “Nothoaspis”, “Ornithodoros“, “next generation sequencing”, “high throughput sequencing”, “deep sequencing”, “Roche 454”, “Illumina”, “Ion Torrent”, “SOLiD” in the search of English literature databases, and the keywords (“tick”, “virome”, “microbiome”, “metagenome”, “high throughput sequencing”, “deep sequencing”, “next generation sequencing”) were used in the database search of Chinese literature. Data on all types of microorganisms including viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes were included. Emerging pathogens were defined as those that were first isolated or discovered after 1980. Ticks can feed on a wide range of vertebrates. Therefore, to highlight the presence of tick-specific pathogens, we chose to include data collected in the field. live ticks, although they do not include data from detached ticks, as the latter could represent a complex microbiome derived from both the tick and the host animal. We excluded the following studies: (i) data obtained from experimentally fed ticks or detached ticks taken from animals; (ii) studies on the evaluation of methods for the isolation and propagation of laboratory strains; (iii) a review article and (iv) studies that only tested the specific microorganism in ticks (Fig. 1a).

Fig. 1

Scheme of documentary research. (a) Flowchart of the documentary research and selection process; (b) Annual number of publications that record ticks collected in the field; (vs) Number of literature grouped according to the sequencing platform used. A literature has assessed the microbiome using both Roche 454 and Illumina based metagenomic approaches.

A total of 2797 studies were retrieved for screening, including 2070 from the English database and 727 from the Chinese database. The title and abstract of retrieved studies were independently reviewed by three reviewers (MC L, JT Z and YZ) to identify studies potentially eligible for inclusion, which was narrowed down to 362 studies. For the third step, the full texts of the remaining studies were retrieved and independently assessed for eligibility by two reviewers (ZY H and BK F). Finally, a total of 7 Chinese studies and 69 English studies were eligible for data extraction (Fig. 1a). The first was published in 2011, and the number of publications has increased over the years, with a remarkable increase from the year 2017 (Fig. 1b). Of all the selected studies, 69 (90.8%) used the Illumina sequencing platform and 5.3% used the Ion Torrent sequencing platform (Fig. 1c). Data came from 46 tick species of 7 genera collected from 24 countries on 6 continents, and the geographical distribution of tick genera was shown in Fig. 2a. Viral metagenomic profiling, eukaryotic and bacterial microbiome profiling corresponding to various tick genera were displayed in all countries (Fig. 2b,c).

Figure 2
Figure 2

The geographic distribution of the tick genus is linked to microbiome data at the province level. (a) Viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes; (b) Viruses; (vs) Bacteria and eukaryotes.

The full text of all selected articles was reviewed and data extracted into a standardized dataset in Microsoft Excel 2019 which primarily includes: (i) identification of tested ticks at family, genus and species, (ii) methods for tick species identification, (iii) life cycle stages of ticks tested, (iv) geographic location of ticks at country and province level, (v ) taxonomic annotations of microorganisms at family, genus, species level, (vi) platforms used for NGS. A double check by two people (MC L and JT Z) was carried out to correct errors and remove duplicates. All conflicts of opinion and uncertainties were discussed and resolved by consensus with a third reviewer (JJ C). The primary variable of interest was the viral/bacterial/eukaryotic component of the microbiome, determined for specific tick species at a specific site over time. All data was entered into the resultant by trained co-authors.

Geo-positioning

Information on the location of the tick collection site was extracted at the province level from the selected literatures. If no longitude or latitude data was reported, or location information was provided only at a large scale, such as scenic area, mountainous region, ArcGIS 10.7 software was used to extract the geographical coordinates of the central points of the corresponding administrative areas from the digital map, which was obtained from GADM (World Administrative Areas Database) and standard map service system. If the collection site could not be determined by any of these means, the authors were contacted for further information. We used R Studio Version 4.1.2 software and ArcGIS 10.7 software to statistically analyze and visualize the geographical data obtained.

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Researchers propose a new regulatory framework for engineered crops https://pclunwen.com/researchers-propose-a-new-regulatory-framework-for-engineered-crops/ Thu, 08 Sep 2022 12:08:06 +0000 https://pclunwen.com/researchers-propose-a-new-regulatory-framework-for-engineered-crops/ A Policy Forum article published this week in Science calls for a new approach to regulating genetically modified (GM) crops, saying current approaches to triggering safety tests vary widely from country to country and are generally lacking. of scientific merit – particularly as advances in crop breeding have blurred the line between conventional breeding and […]]]>

A Policy Forum article published this week in Science calls for a new approach to regulating genetically modified (GM) crops, saying current approaches to triggering safety tests vary widely from country to country and are generally lacking. of scientific merit – particularly as advances in crop breeding have blurred the line between conventional breeding and genetic engineering.

For example, when it comes to varieties created using the powerful gene-editing system known as CRISPR, the European Union regulates all varieties while other governments base their decisions on the size of the genetic change and the source of the inserted genetic material. Meanwhile, in 2020, the US Department of Agriculture established a rule that exempts conventionally bred crop varieties and genetically modified crop varieties from regulation that could have been developed by methods other than engineering. genetic. One of the paper’s co-authors is Ken Giller, Professor of Crop Production Systems at Wageningen University and Research.

Rather than focusing on the methods and processes behind creating a genetically modified crop to determine if testing is needed, the paper argues that a more effective framework would examine specific new characteristics of the crop itself using so-called “-omics” approaches. . In the same way that biomedical sciences can use genomics approaches to analyze human genomes for problematic mutations, genomics can be used to analyze new crop varieties for unexpected changes in DNA.

Additional -omics methods such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics test for other changes in the molecular composition of plants. These measurements of thousands of molecular traits can be used as a fingerprint to determine whether a new variety’s product is “substantially equivalent” to products already made by existing varieties – if, for example, a new peach variety has molecular characteristics that are already found in one or more existing commercial peach varieties.

If the new product shows no differences or includes differences with no expected health or environmental effects from products of existing varieties, no safety testing would be recommended. If, however, the product has new characteristics that may have health or environmental effects, or if the product has differences that cannot be interpreted, safety testing would be recommended.

American Academy of Sciences
The article was written by a group of American experts and Wageningen professor Ken Giller. Six years ago, they were already working together on a committee of the American Academy of Sciences and together authored the report Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects, which aimed to “assess the evidence for the alleged negative effects of GM crops and the technologies that accompany them. and “assess the evidence for the purported benefits of GM crops and accompanying technologies.” Most of the members of this committee co-authored the guidance document published this week.

“We’re missing so many opportunities,” says Giller, a farming systems specialist, particularly for the tropics. “Not just in crop improvement, but also in disease resistance. Biotechnology has been used in the past to make crops resistant to herbicides. Thus, genetic improvement has enabled farmers to spray more pesticides. But genetic improvement can also be done in the opposite direction, incorporating plant disease resistance, which would help us to significantly reduce the use of pesticides.

Changing a DNA base pair can make a substantial difference. “The approaches currently used to regulate genetically modified (GM) crops – which differ from government to government – lack scientific rigor,” adds Fred Gould, professor emeritus at North Carolina State University, co-director of the Genetic Engineering and NC State Society Center and the corresponding author of the article. “The size of the change made to a product and the origin of the DNA have little to do with the results of that change; changing a base pair of DNA in a crop with 2.5 billion base pairs, such as corn, can make a substantial difference, for example.

According to the authors, “-omics” approaches, if used wisely, would not increase the cost of regulation. Gould: “It is likely that most new varieties would not trigger a need for regulation. The most important question is: “Does the new variety have any unknown characteristics?”

Development of a new regulatory framework
The creation of an international committee of plant breeders, chemists and molecular biologists to establish the options and costs of “-omics” approaches for a variety of crops would initiate the process of developing this new regulatory framework. Workshops with these experts as well as sociologists, policy makers, regulators and representatives of the general public would enable reliable deliberations that could avoid some of the problems encountered when rolling out the GE in the 1990s. National and international governing bodies should sponsor these committees and workshops as well as innovative research to start the process and ensure that assessments are accessible and accurate.

For more information:
Wageningen University and Research
www.wur.nl

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NMSU alum gets international recognition for AI privacy research https://pclunwen.com/nmsu-alum-gets-international-recognition-for-ai-privacy-research/ Sat, 03 Sep 2022 13:51:20 +0000 https://pclunwen.com/nmsu-alum-gets-international-recognition-for-ai-privacy-research/ LAS CRUCES — Ferdinando Fioretto, who earned a dual doctorate in computer science from New Mexico State University and the University of Udine in Italy, has won several awards over the past year for his research influential on privacy and fairness in machine learning algorithms as well as the integration of operations research with deep […]]]>

LAS CRUCES — Ferdinando Fioretto, who earned a dual doctorate in computer science from New Mexico State University and the University of Udine in Italy, has won several awards over the past year for his research influential on privacy and fairness in machine learning algorithms as well as the integration of operations research with deep learning.

For his pivotal contributions, Fioretto, Assistant Professor of Computer Science at Syracuse University, received an Early Career Researcher Award from the Association for Constraint Programming, a Young Investigator Award for Research in Computer Science by the Italian Scientists and Scholars in North America Foundation, a National Science Foundation CAREER Award, and a Google Research Scholar Award.

In addition to its NSF and Early Career Awards, Fioretto has won several Best Paper Awards, including a Best AI Dissertation Award from the International Conference of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence.

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