Vomiting viruses, fruit and vegetable emissions — the week in infographics

The carbon footprint of food

This graph shows that the transport and production of food generate enormous amounts of carbon dioxide emissions, and that the transport of fruits and vegetables in refrigerated vehicles is particularly emitting. The researchers collected data from 74 countries and regions and looked at where food came from, where it went and how it moved from place to place. They found that in 2017, the transport of food ingredients and products accounted for almost a fifth of all carbon emissions in the food system – a much larger share of the emissions pie than previously thought. , and more than those related to the transport of goods from mining and manufacturing. .

Source: Li, M. et al. natural food 3445–453 (2022).

COVID hits poor countries hardest

At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk of dying from the disease was much higher for people living in poorer countries than for those in wealthier countries, a study reports. Data from the start of the pandemic suggested the opposite – that death and infection rates in poor countries were relatively low compared to those in rich countries. But recent evidence paints a very different picture, as our News article explains.

How deadly is COVID-19?  : The risk of dying from COVID-19 is higher for people in low- and middle-income countries.

Source: Levin, AT et al. BMJ Global. Health sevene008477 (2022).

New ways of spreading noroviruses

Gastrointestinal viruses, such as norovirus and rotavirus, can spread like wildfire, causing diarrhea and vomiting. They are thought to be spread through the fecal-oral route, in which a person with the virus releases tiny particles of stool or vomit which are ingested by someone else. A paper in Nature this week suggests that viruses can also be transmitted through saliva, as this graphic explains.

Young mice inoculated orally with one of these viruses are infected in their intestines and salivary glands (a). They can pass the virus to their mother while nursing, who in turn can pass both the virus and the protective antibodies to their puppies. It is not known if the infection spreads to the mother’s intestine. Adult mice orally inoculated with virus (b) also develop intestinal and salivary gland infections and can transmit the virus to pups through saliva. If these viruses spread through communities through saliva, practices such as wearing masks could help curb them.

Figure 1

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